1.3.1 Initial Contacts and Referrals
RELEVANT PROCEDURES AND GUIDANCE
This chapter should be read in conjunction with:
AMENDMENTIn October 2020, this chapter was updated throughout in line with local practice.
1. Initial Contacts
An Initial Contact is made where Children's Social Care is contacted about a child, who may be a Child in Need, and where there is a request for general advice, information or a service.
All contacts need to be considered alongside thresholds for Children in Need, the Threshold Document – Continuum of Help and Support and/or the FCAF criteria, and a decision made within one working day regarding the level of response required.
At any time, an Initial Contact may become a Referral if it appears that services may be required for a Child in Need.
Any significant information received about a child who is an open case should not be regarded as a referral but the information should be passed to the child's allocated social worker and recorded on the electronic database.
Where a family is open to a worker and the worker becomes aware of another child in the household, who lives within the family, or when a child is unborn, the allocated worker can add the contact and referral themselves rather than referring back to the Safeguarding Hub. Generally speaking unborn children should only be added at 16 weeks gestation, however there are exceptions that can be made to this rule by a Senior Fieldwork Manager. A clear rationale needs to be recorded on the child's electronic file for why this decision has been made.
The worker should use the contact and referral records from the Children's System side of Liquid logic rather than the contact and referral record which the Hub is using.
The Family Common Assessment Framework (FCAF) is not a referral form, although it may be used to support a referral or a specialist assessment.
In all other cases, at the point when an Initial Contact is made, the duty worker should establish whether the enquiry can be dealt with by the provision of information and advice or re-direction to other agencies or services.
The screening worker should also check the electronic database records to see if the child or family is known and, if known, retrieve information on them. Any such information should be passed to the allocated social worker if there is one, and otherwise to the duty social worker in the case of urgent information requiring an immediate response.
An Initial Contact will be progressed to a Referral within one working day where the social worker or manager considers an assessment and/or services may be required for a Child in Need.
Referrers will have the opportunity to discuss their concerns with a qualified social worker. The referrer should be asked specifically if they hold any information about difficulties being experienced by the family/household due to domestic violence and abuse, mental illness, substance misuse and/or learning difficulties.
Once the referral has been accepted by local authority children's social care the lead professional role falls to a social worker.
The social worker should clarify with the referrer, when known, the nature of the concerns and how and why they have arisen. The social worker will clarify with the referrer how they have obtained consent from a person with parental responsibility to make the referral.
The screening social worker will arrange to contact the referrer and obtain as much of the following information as possible:
- Full names, dates of birth and gender of children;
- Family address and, where relevant, school/nursery attended;
- Identity of those with Parental Responsibility;
- Names and dates of birth of all members of the household;
- Ethnicity, first language and religion of children and parents;
- Any special needs of the children including the means in which they communicate;
- Any significant recent or past events;
- Cause for concern including details of allegations, their sources, timing and location;
- The child's current location and emotional and physical condition;
- Whether the child needs immediate protection;
- Details of any alleged perpetrator;
- Referrer's relationship with and knowledge of the child and his or her family;
- Known involvement of other agencies;
- Information regarding parents' knowledge and agreement to referral.
Once received, all Referrals must be written up and a decision made about their disposal within one working day of the initial contact. (Note: This should be as soon as possible where it is evident the child is seen as requiring immediate protection/urgent action).Within one working day, the social worker should make a decision about the type of response that is required. This will include determining whether:
- The child requires immediate protection and urgent action is required;
- There is reasonable cause to suspect that the child is suffering, or likely to suffer, Significant Harm, and whether enquires must be made and the child assessed under Section 47 of the Children Act 1989;
- The child is in need, and should be assessed under Section 17 of the Children Act 1989;
- Any services are required by the child and family and what type of services; and
- Further specialist assessments are required in order to help the local authority to decide what further action to take.
If the referral meets the threshold for Section 17 of the Children Act 1989 and there are concerns that further information from other professionals is required without the consent of a person with parental responsibility, there has to be clear rationale recorded on the electronic file as to why consent is being dispensed with for other agency checks to be undertaken.
4. Screening Process
The following process applies to new cases of children previously unknown to the authority, and to closed cases.
The process of Referrals must include screening against the Threshold Document - Continuum of Help and Support and/or FCAF and must include internal electronic database and agency checks to establish whether the family is previously known, and whether there is a Child Protection Plan in relation to the child and/or whether the child is Looked After.
The screening process should establish:
- The nature of the concern;
- How and why it has arisen;
- What the child's needs appear to be;
- Whether the concern involves Significant Harm;
- Whether there is any need for urgent action to protect the child or any children in the household.
This process will involve:
- Discussion with the referrer;
- Consideration of any existing records, including whether the child is the subject of a Child Protection Plan;
- Involving other agencies as appropriate and in accordance with Information sharing advice for safeguarding practitioners:
- Consent from the parent or carer should normally be sought;
- However, the Data Protection Act should never be a barrier to 'sharing information where the failure to do so would result in a child or vulnerable adult being placed at risk of harm' or indeed on those occasions where seeking consent might increase the risk of harm;
- Information shared should always be 'necessary and proportionate'.
If there are indications that a child may be at risk of Significant Harm, the manager may authorise whatever actions are necessary to protect the child or others in the household from Significant Harm, which may result in the immediate provision of services.
If there is suspicion that a crime may have been committed including sexual or physical assault or neglect of the child, the Police must be notified immediately.
Personal information about non-professional referrers should not be disclosed to the parents or other agencies without the referrer's consent.
The parent's consent should usually be sought before discussing a referral with other agencies unless this may place the child at risk of Significant Harm, in which case the manager should authorise the discussion of the referral with other agencies without parental knowledge or consent. The authorisation should be recorded with reasons.
Where a family is open to a worker and the worker becomes aware of another child in the household, who lives within the family, or when a child is unborn, the allocated worker can add the contact and referral themselves rather than referring back to the Safeguarding Hub. As previously indicated, generally speaking unborn children should only be added at 16 weeks gestation, however there are exceptions that can be made to this rule by a Senior Fieldwork Manager. A clear rationale needs to be recorded on the child's electronic file for why this decision has been made.The worker should use the contact and referral records from the Children's System side of Liquid logic rather than the contact and referral record which the Hub is using.
5. Outcome of Referrals
The outcome of a Referral, which must be authorised by the manager, may be:
- That the child does not appear to be a Child in Need, which will result in one of the following: the provision of information, advice, sign-posting to another agency and/or universal services;
- That the child appears to be a Child in Need, threshold level 5 in which case, the manager must authorise an Assessment;
- That it is suspected that the child is suffering or is likely to suffer from Significant Harm, which will result in an Assessment, with a view to conducting a Strategy Discussion, prior to a Section 47 Enquiry commencing.
If there are indications that a child may be at risk of Significant Harm, the manager may authorise whatever actions are necessary to protect the child or others in the household from Significant Harm, which may result in the immediate provision of services. There should be consideration of a Strategy Discussion and of a multi-agency response.
Professional referrers should be advised of the outcome of the referral in writing within 3 working days of the referral being received.
Feedback on the outcome of the Referral should also be provided to non-professional referrers in a manner consistent with respecting the confidentiality of the child.
The child and family must be informed of the action to be taken.
In line with Practice Standards for Practitioners the child should be seen within 5 days from the start of the Social Care Single Assessment or 24 hours if the child may be at risk of significant harm if the decision is taken that the Referral requires further assessment.Where requested to do so by local authority children's social care, professionals from other parts of the local authority such as housing and those in health organisations have a duty to cooperate under Section 27 of the Children Act 1989 by assisting the local authority in carrying out its children's social care functions.
6. Recording of Referrals
All Initial Contacts and Referrals should be recorded on the electronic database.